Jerry Gore, a retired faculty member of Morehead State University and a lifelong resident of Maysville, KY, passed away August 3, 2016, after losing a battle with pneumonia.
Mr. Gore was a respected local historian who developed a national reputation focusing on the history of enslavement and abolition in the Maysville Kentucky Metropolitan Region .
Mr. Gore was a descendant of Addison White. White fled enslavement from Flemingsburg, Kentucky, only to be discovered working on the farm of Udney Hay Hyde in Mechanicsburg, OH, more than 100 miles North East of Flemingsburg . After a confrontation with slave catchers who wanted to take Mr. White back to Kentucky, Mr. White was able to shoot his way out of almost certain capture. At least ten White citizens of Mechanicsburg fought a posse that included U.S. Marshalls, when they returned to Mechanicsburg the Marshalls were met with pitchforks and anything else the people could get their hands on in an effort to prevent the citizens who assisted Mr. White’s escape from being arrested. The running battle covered at least three counties, and several of the men involved in the fray faced a hearing in a Federal Court in Cincinnati, where they were accused of interfering with U.S. Marshalls under the provisions of the Fugitive Slave Act.
In July 1857, in the US District Court room of Judge Humphery H. Levit, a compromise was reached, as the result of the men from Mechanicsburg, OH agreeing to pay Daniel White of Flemingsburg Ky. $1,000.00 for Mr. White’s freedom.
Addison White went to Canada and started a new life, however, with the advent of the Civil War, he returned to America in 1864 and joined Company E. of the Massachusetts 54th US Colored Troops. At the end of the Civil War, Addison White returned to Mechanicsburg, OH where he found a permanent job with the village in the street department. Mr. White lived the balance of his life in peace in Mechanicsburg, where he and his wife, Amanda, are now buried in Maple Grove Cemetery. In 2005, Mechanicsburg and the Ohio State Historical Office erected a plaque commemorating his legacy—a man who fought to be free and, in turn, fought to help free those who were still enslaved. Jerry Gore was in the audience during that ceremony, where he acknowledged his family’s history. Now, both their spirits are free.
Carl B. Westmoreland, senior historian and preservationist
Thank you, National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, for making the Islamophobia – not in our Community! brochure accessible to the public. Not since the aftermath of “9/11” have American Muslims as a group faced such unwarranted suspicion and outright bigotry as they have this past year. They are concerned, and rightly so, for their civil rights and for the safety and well-being of their families. We, too, should be concerned. This is not a time for us to sit by and watch our fellow Americans, our Cincinnati neighbors, being scapegoated and maligned as Muslims have been of late. We need to confront ignorant, prejudiced and hateful rhetoric, wherever it occurs.
We need to help educate the uninformed and inexperienced. And, we must insist on honesty, fairness and social responsibility in our public discourse. For, as history has taught us and the Freedom Center teaches us every day, bigotry in any form, anywhere, when unchallenged, can and will spread like a cancer to more and more victim groups until it reaches a point when no group is left un-implicated and unharmed. Read this valuable brochure, learn from it, use it, and share it widely. Then take the initiative to get to know your Muslim neighbors. You, and they, will be glad you did!
Robert “Chip” Harrod, chief executive officer of BRIDGES
Civil Rights leader and former National Underground Railroad Freedom Center advisory board member Vernon Jordan will be returning to Cincinnati this summer for the Ohio Legislative Black Caucus Convention. Jordan is scheduled to be the keynote speaker July 16 at the Duke Energy Convention Center. Jordan, now 80, previously served as an advisor to President Bill Clinton.
Vernon Jordan played a big role in the civil rights movement in the 1960s, working with the NAACP in organizing boycotts and expanding membership. Before long, Jordan’s extraordinary work was noticed and he became director of the Southern Regionals Council’s Education project in 1964, a project that increased the number black voters in the South. In 1971, Jordan became president of the National Urban League.
Harvard University professor and historian of African-American life, Henry Louis Gates, Jr. claims that no one has played a more pivotal role in furthering civil rights in the last half century than Jordan. Jordan is also a businessman, and at one time served on 10 major corporate boards simultaneously. He holds more than 60 honorary degrees from colleges and universities in the United States. In an interview with Bloomberg, American Express CEO Ken Chenault said that Jordan’s “been able to transform society, go into business, and transform business” Jordan recalled his emotions during the election of the first African American president, noting that he cried when President Obama was sworn in 2008, "It dawned on me the tears were not my tears. They were the tears of my parents and grandparents. They were the tears of black people that toted cotton and lifted that bale. They were the tears of incredulous belief that a black man had been elected president of the United States.”
The 13-member Ohio Legislative Black Caucus will hold its convention July 15-17 ahead of the NAACP’s national convention downtown. It will be the first time the convention will be held in Cincinnati since it was founded in 1967.
Marketing & Communications intern
Images: Zimbio.com, Depauw.edu
Dr. Clarence G. Newsome, president of the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, calls the nation to come together after three horrific shootings that have deeply affected communities across the country.
“The horrible events that our country has witnessed over the past three days in Baton Rouge, St. Paul, and Dallas have shocked America’s soul. Our body politic is in need of deep, deep healing. No free republic can long endure without maturing to the point where all of its citizens live the reality of what freedom requires of us individually. It requires that each of us live out a shared understanding of what personal freedom means. Personal freedom is the power to relate and interact with others in ways that safeguard, sustain and enhance life to the optimal degree. A young nation must grow to see that freedom has no practical meaning for someone living an isolated existence on a deserted island. It only has meaning to the degree that we relate to one another respectfully, responsibly and accountably. Regardless of our private or professional roles, the capacity to be self-disciplining and self- governing is the key to personal freedom. It is also the key to a peaceful and prosperous free society. Just four days ago America celebrated its precious gift of freedom. It will be in the way that we exercise personal freedom that we will have reason to celebrate in the years ahead. On this the day following three horrible days in our national life, I am appealing to the heart, mind and spirit of each American to demonstrate to each other and to the world the best of ourselves as a free people. This day, and the days to come, we the people should commit to nothing less.” – Dr. Clarence G. Newsome, president of the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center.
It has been nearly two weeks since the attack on Pulse nightclub in Orlando and I have had a very difficult time putting into words exactly how this horrible atrocity has me feeling. Beyond the seething rage that defies description, there is something else.
I don’t feel safe. As Americans, we all feel this to some degree after the latest mass shooting in our country (how disgusting that I can say the words “latest mass shooting” to begin with). But let me be clear about one thing: I have not felt safe since having the realization at an early age that I was different and that my being different could mean violence against me was possible at any moment.
Before I go on, I would say to my young self in this moment to look to hope and love. I was told something I needed to hear this week and it would have helped me years ago. Darkness owns the sky but we always look to the stars. I would tell him not to be ruled by fear and that the very act of existing in his own skin and being who he is, is an act of quiet revolution. His existence can change the world for another like him in the future and make their path a little easier. It is okay to be afraid, as I am now, this will pass. I absolutely refuse to be ruled by fear.
Waking up that morning and being reminded that there are people in the world who would like to see me meet a similar end was terrifying. The LGBTQ community is incredibly vulnerable here in the United States and even more so abroad. Disproportionately at risk are people of color and those who identify as transgender. These members of our LGBTQ family often bear the brunt of this violence.
I heard many people over the past week say things like, “this was a club that welcomed everyone,” or “this didn’t directly affect you.” This is erasure. The truth is, this was a gay club. It directly impacts every single LGBTQ person on this planet. Any time an act of violence is committed against us, because of who we are and who we love, it directly effects our sense of safety.
Gay men and those suspected of being gay in Syria, are being hurled from multi-story buildings by ISIS extremists. Here in the U.S. trans students are now at risk of attack from their fellow classmates, (with the administration’s permission) for using the bathroom that corresponds with their gender identity. In Uganda anti-gay laws have incited an increase in violence against us. In Jamaica, LGBTQ people face mob attacks, stabbings, death threats and, in some cases, murder. Throughout the world lesbians are subjected to corrective rape. In Russia LGBTQ pride parades are met with violence and anti-gay groups who place false dating profiles in an effort to kidnap and torture those who respond. All of this is recorded and uploaded to the Internet as a warning to the LGBTQ people of the world. These are just a few examples of the violence that our community faces every day.
We must press on and, whatever we do, we must not allow this most recent attack to drive a wedge between us, and our similarly marginalized brothers and sisters in the Islamic community. I entreat my LGBTQ family, and anyone reading this post, to not respond to hate with hate and to not judge an entire group of people based on the actions of a few. We are better than that. We live in a climate of fear. We are tired. We are angry. Despite all of this - we must remain strong.
The LGBTQ members of your community are suffering and they need you now more than ever. When you hear a slur, a joke, a derogatory comment, or anti-gay rhetoric, know that it directly contributes to a culture that has allowed this violence against us. To do nothing is to be complicit.
We all have a direct responsibility as human beings to help end hate. It is up to all of us to stand up and speak up. I refuse to sit quietly any longer. I hope you’ll join me.
Jesse Kramer, Art Director
Images: NYDaily News, WSBV-Atlanta
By now you may have read Snoop’s comments about the reboot of Roots and his call to boycott the series. His comments, which he delivered this week via Instagram—from his account that boasts a following of 10. 5 million users—has already driven numerous responses, including comments from the producers of the series reboot, Roland Martin & Levar Burton, the latter of whom played Kunta Kinte in the original 1977 miniseries. But Roots is much more than a story about slavery, it’s a story about the black experience in America.
It's important. In the 150 plus years since the issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation and the enactment of the Thirteenth Amendment, the latter of which abolished institutionalized slavery in America, never before have we been more equipped to tell the story of the people that endured the system and the subsequent atrocities that followed its end, by the descendants of those who endured it. Prior to the miniseries, stories about slavery and the Civil War in mainstream culture and media— print, film and music— were predominately told by Southern sympathizers, like D.W. Griffith and Margaret Mitchell, who romanticized the period and further perpetuated derogatory stereotypes of black people, diminishing them to caricatures. Roots was the first time that America’s dark history –from slavery to the contemporary issues of the day—was told from the black perspective, with strong, unapologetic characters like Kunta Kinte, to a prime-time audience.
2. A Brief History of the Black Image in Media
Roots was revolutionary—not in subject matter alone, but in presentation and representation. The original Roots aired a little more than a decade after the passing of the Voting Rights Act of 1964 and the Civil Rights Act of 1965. In an address at the National Broadcast Editorial Conference of the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism in July of 1964, the then president of CBS, Frank Stanton, called upon broadcasters to launch a "mighty and continuing editorial crusade" in support of civil rights. Albeit the call was initially was made to focus on blacks as the subjects of documentaries in alignment with Lyndon B. Johnson’s vision of the “Great Society,” the shows produced during this time period—The Sammy Davis, Jr. Show, Julia, Star Trek and The Mod Squad, to name a few—placed black actors in leading and supporting roles, introducing mainstream America to black culture and issues.
Prior to this shift, films starring black actors made by black filmmakers – Oscar Micheaux, Spencer Williams and James and Eloyce Gist—in order to contradict negative stereotypes, were suppressed by major studios, especially to Southern audiences. Films produced during the Golden Age of Hollywood that featured or starred black actors, such as Gone with the Wind, Cabin in the Sky, Stormy Weather, Imitation of Life and Pinky, were few and far between and mostly catered to white audiences, perpetuating archetypical “black” characters. The shift that Stanton called for in 1964 had already begun playing out in Hollywood with the arrival of Sidney Poitier, Dorothy Dandridge, Ruby Dee, Ozzie Davis and more, many of whom made the leap from theater to the silver screen. But, for all the progress made in front of the camera, there was still progress to be made behind the camera. The original Roots screenplay and series directors included Alex Haley and Gilbert Moses, co-founder of the Free Southern Theater Company whose establishment was part of the Black Theater Movement, in alignment with the Civil Rights Movement. Having black writers produce work for mainstream consumption was still considered a risky investment.
3. Something that "happened 200 years ago" ABSOLUTELY relates to contemporary issues.
When Roots aired in January of 1977, the nation was still recovering from the Vietnam War, civil unrest and economic crisis. The manufacturing jobs that drew southern black families north during the Great Migration began to dwindle in the mid-60s and were being outsourced to other countries where the cost of labor was cheaper. But the burden of a national trend affecting cities across the country was disproportionately suffered by black and brown, working class families, as white families began moving out of cities (see white flight) to avoid the desegregation of schools and Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968—the Fair Housing Act—which prohibited housing discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin. What does slavery have to do with this? Systemic Racism—Jim Crow, employment and housing discrimination, incarceration, the school- to prison pipeline, the wealth gap, the war on drugs and infant mortality all stem from the systematic stripping of constitutional rights established during the Reconstruction Era (1865-1877). Roots is a saga—and it begins with slavery because that’s where the story of blacks in America begins.
4. Should we watch Soul Plane instead or nah?
You're right about one thing—we need more black stories in mainstream media. Stories and images that showcase who we are culturally and celebrates our diversity, because we are not a monolith. Please!—make movies and media that tell multiple stories of a rich culture and diverse people. In the last decade, television has seen a resurgence of black characters in leading roles in the coveted prime time television spot. The rise of social media and streaming services has also provided previously unknown black actors, writers and producers— like Issa Rae— with a powerful platform in which our stories can be seen and consumed by the masses, jettisoning black actors and black stories back into traditional media outlets. Shows like Martin, Living Single, Girlfriends, A Different World and many more, have reintroduced the contemporary black experience to new audiences and a new generation of viewers. What’s more is that the characters are three dimensional, beautifully nuanced roles written, produced and directed by people of color. The creation of these complex roles provide more to mainstream media consumption than bland, unrealistic, stock "black" characters, previously written by writers who knew nothing of what it is like to be black in contemporary America.
So yes, Snoop, I will be watching—well, streaming—because in a time where states are violating voting rights and where activists have to remind society that Black Lives Matter, it is extremely important that we go back to our roots.
Assia Micheaux Johnson, Public Relations and Social Media Coordinator
Images: Roots (2016) Via History Channel, Still from Stormy Weather via MGM and allposters.com
More authored by Assia: Freedom Center Open This Memorial Day, May 30, Freedom Center Open Sundays in Summer, Gift Shop Sale: Mother's Day Gift Ideas and More!, National Underground Railroad Freedom Center Announces New Curator, Reveal Stories: The 18 Black American Athletes of the 1936 Olympic Games International Human Rights Day: Cincinnati Honors Legacy of Helen Suzman, 150th Anniversary of the 13th Amendment: President Obama Gives Presidential Proclamation, Flame Friday: Artist James Pate, Freedom Center to Host Award-winning Author and Yale University Alumni Jeff Hobbs Thursday, King Records now a Cincinnati landmark, On This Day in History: The Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, Connect with History Labor Day Weekend, 50 Years Later: The Voting Rights Act of 1965, 50 Midwest Museums We Love, Mother's Day Gift Ideas, Flame Friday, Jimmie Lee Jackson, MLK Day 2015
The Gift Shop at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center is full of great gift ideas for your entire family—with a variety of books, apparel, souvenirs, art, beautifully and locally hand-crafted jewelry, toys, housewares and more! Now is the perfect time to purchase an inspired gift during our store-wide 75% off sale, where Freedom Center members get an additional 20% off their purchase! Click here to become a member today.
The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center will be open to the public on Memorial Day, 11:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
In addition to being open on Memorial Day, the museums's summer hours begin this Sunday, May 29, 11:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., through Labor Day weekend.
Want the latest on upcoming special exhibitions, events and programs? Follow us on Twitter and Instagram, @FreedomCenter and on Facebook, for more historical posts and images.
Assia Johnson, Public Relations and Social Media Coordinator
More authored by Assia: Freedom Center Open Sundays in Summer, Gift Shop Sale: Mother's Day Gift Ideas and More!, National Underground Railroad Freedom Center Announces New Curator, Reveal Stories: The 18 Black American Athletes of the 1936 Olympic Games International Human Rights Day: Cincinnati Honors Legacy of Helen Suzman, 150th Anniversary of the 13th Amendment: President Obama Gives Presidential Proclamation, Flame Friday: Artist James Pate, Freedom Center to Host Award-winning Author and Yale University Alumni Jeff Hobbs Thursday, King Records now a Cincinnati landmark, On This Day in History: The Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, Connect with History Labor Day Weekend, 50 Years Later: The Voting Rights Act of 1965, 50 Midwest Museums We Love, Mother's Day Gift Ideas, Flame Friday, Jimmie Lee Jackson, MLK Day 2015
The museum will be open on Sundays beginning May 29.
Our extended summer hours provide more opportunities to engage in historical programming, tour permanent exhibitions and experience special exhibitions including ENSLAVED: A Visual Story of Modern Day Slavery, featuring images by world-renown humanitarian photographer, Lisa Kristine and see the founding documents of freedom, The Emancipation Proclamation and The Thirteenth Amendment, before they close July 24.
The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center’s seasonal Sunday hours begin this Sunday, May 29, from 11:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., through Labor Day weekend.
Want the latest on upcoming special exhibitions, events and programs? Follow us on Twitter and Instagram, @FreedomCenter and on Facebook, for more historical posts and images.
Assia M. Johnson, Public Relations and Social Media Coordinator
More authored by Assia: Gift Shop Sale: Mother's Day Gift Ideas and More!, National Underground Railroad Freedom Center Announces New Curator, Reveal Stories: The 18 Black American Athletes of the 1936 Olympic Games International Human Rights Day: Cincinnati Honors Legacy of Helen Suzman, 150th Anniversary of the 13th Amendment: President Obama Gives Presidential Proclamation, Flame Friday: Artist James Pate, Freedom Center to Host Award-winning Author and Yale University Alumni Jeff Hobbs Thursday, King Records now a Cincinnati landmark, On This Day in History: The Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, Connect with History Labor Day Weekend, 50 Years Later: The Voting Rights Act of 1965, 50 Midwest Museums We Love, Mother's Day Gift Ideas, Flame Friday, Jimmie Lee Jackson, MLK Day 2015
The richness of American diversity and the multifaceted contributions to American democracy is making an appearance on American currency. Harriet Tubman’s image on the American $20 bill represents a recognition of the role people of color and women played in making the United States of American a beacon of hope for the world. Tubman is known primarily as an abolitionist, fighting against slavery, and as the matriarch of the Underground Railroad, navigating the route to freedom for persons bold enough to escape from slavery. She was also an indispensable part of the military efforts of the Union Army. Tubman served the Union Army as a cook, a nurse, a scout, and a resourceful spy who risked her life moving through the south gathering intelligence which aided the union cause. Tubman represents the depth of American liberty. About liberty she stated, “I would fight for liberty so long as my strength lasted.” It was most appropriate that when she died Harriet Tubman was buried with military honors. She was a solider for the cause of the Union of the United States. She was also a solider for justice, for women’s rights, for the rights of all persons to enjoy the American dream of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
I am particularly pleased that Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew, who I had the honor of meeting when he served as Deputy Secretary of State and I served as U.S. Ambassador to the African Union, has taken the bold step in recognizing Harriet Tubman’s contribution to American democracy by placing her image on one of our nation’s most widely used pieces of currency. As Executive Vice President of the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, the home of the Harriet Tubman Theatre, I am hopeful that the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center will be one of the places for a public unveiling of the currency and a public discussion of contributions to American democracy made by Harriet Tubman.
Dr. Michael A. Battle, Executive Vice President/Provost of the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center
This website was funded by the U.S. Department of Education Underground Railroad Educational and Cultural (URR) Program